Twine Thinking for Programmers

Programmers find Twine's hypertext way of doing things a little strange at first. Twine works well for branching hypertexts but needs some thinking for stories driven by variables. I've done a few game stories in twine - mostly conversions of early BASIC programs - so this is a lessons learned type of blog. You might find this article for useful for any Game Story; usually adventure games, RPGs.

Twine's basic unit is the passage. Passages work like procedure calls. Passages are similar to GOSUB in BASIC. By default passages print their content to the screen and you use tweecode macros to execute game logic.

Passages are "called" by the Twine engine in a few ways:
  • The Start passage is called to begin the story
  • Readers activating [[link]] or <<CHOICE>>
  • <<DISPLAY>> macro within passages.
The <<DISPLAY>> macro is the programmers GOSUB / procedure call. Twine has no GOTO equivalent: <<DISPLAY>> always RETURNs to the passage that called it. Anything after the <<DISPLAY>> macro will still be processed (and output if appropriate) by the Twine Engine. Use <<DISPLAY>> generously - it is the workhouse of programmer-like Twine and the basic unit of code re-use within a story.

Twine's tweecode has only global variables. This means that variables cannot be directly passed to passages - they are <<SET>> in global variable space before calling the <<DISPLAY>> function. Twine allows long variable names so use generous prefixes to distinguish variables.

Twine has no inbuilt loop constructs (for, do, while). Loop constructs can be built using <<IF>><<ELSE>><<ENDIF>> and passages. Here's a helpful article: How to Simulate for, while or do loops in Twine.
UPDATE: I've just released <<while>> macros.

Once your passage count gets higher Twine's diagram based UI can get unwieldy. Programmers used to text-based programming will find it more natural to write in TWEECODE and use the StoryIncludes feature to import files into a Twine Story. There is only a global namespace for passages so ensure that passage names are unique. Passages can be moved between the main Twine story file and included files as needed. Use StoryIncludes and tweecode files as the basic unit of code reuse between different stories.

Tweecode files are text files (UTF-8) that add a few extra things to the Twine macros already used. It's easiest to think of Tweecode files as a bucket of passages - for that most part Twine does not care about the order of passages. New passages begin with a single line passage header and end either when a new passage header begins or the file ends. A passage header begins a line with double colon (::) followed by the passage name. Optionally tags can be added space delimited with square brackets. Here's a brief example:
::Passage Title 1 [tag1 anothertag yet_another_tag]
This is part of passage one.

::Passage Title 2
more content

Twine allows complete access to JavaScript though consider keeping Javascript use to a minimum so that your story has fewer dependancies. If you do use javascript then consider placing custom scripts into their own tweecode files; both for your own reuse and to provide an easy way to find code if it must be later rewritten by future generations. Here are some useful articles: Once you get used to tracking state variables globally and how the <<DISPLAY>> macro always returns then it is only small extension to create event loop based games. I find it easier to work with example code so here's some classic game conversions with full source available: Please share / like comment: your actions influence what I decide to write about.